1. What is the analog-to-digital conversion of signals?

An analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.

2. What are the properties of ROC for z-Transform?

• ROC of z-transform is indicated with a circle in z-plane.
• ROC does not contain any poles.
• If x(n) is a finite duration causal sequence or right-sided sequence, then the ROC is entire z-plane except at z = 0.
• If x(n) is a finite duration anti-causal sequence or left-sided sequence, then the ROC is the entire z-plane except at z = ∞.
• If x(n) is an infinite duration causal sequence, ROC is the exterior of the circle with radius a. i.e. |z| > a.
• If x(n) is an infinite duration anti-causal sequence, ROC is the interior of the circle with radius a. i.e. |z| < a.
• If x(n) is a finite duration two sided sequence, then the ROC is entire z-plane except at z = 0 & z = ∞.

3. What are the parts of the Network Management System (NMS)?

• Network device discovery
• Network device monitoring
• Network performance analysis
• Network device management

4. What are the applications of DSP?

DSP applications are audio and speech processing, sonar, radar and other sensor array processing, spectral density estimation, statistical signal processing, digital image processing, data compression, video coding, audio coding, image compression.

5. What are the functions of the Base Station System (BSS)?

The base station subsystem (BSS) is the section of a traditional cellular telephone network which is responsible for handling traffic and signaling between a mobile phone and the network switching subsystem.

6. Explain the radio environment in the building.

Building penetration : Building penetration depends on the material used for construction and architecture used. This varies building to building and is based on building construction.

Building Height Effect : The signal strength is always higher at top floor and generally floor gain height is about 2.7dB/floor which is not dependent on building construction.

Building Floor Reception : The signal isolation between floors in a multi floor building is on the average about 20dB. Within a floor of 150 * 150 feet, the propagation loss due to interior walls, depending on the wall materials is about 20 dB between the strong and the weak areas

7. What are the GPRS services?

General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packet-based wireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users.

8. What is the static resistance of the diode?

The resistance offered by a p-n junction diode when it is connected to a DC circuit is called static resistance. Static resistance is also defined as the ratio of DC voltage applied across diode to the DC current or direct current flowing through the diode.

9. Explain what is an ideal diode?

An ideal diode means a perfect diode which has all properties in their perfect sense without any flaws. Usually, a diode operates either in forward or reverse biased condition. The characteristics which are expected to be exhibited by the ideal diode can be analyzed separately for these two modes of operation.

10. What are the advantages of CDMA?

• The CDMA does not require any synchronization.
• It has more number of users can share the same bandwidth.
• It is well-matched with other cellular technologies.
• Due to codeword allocated to each user, interference is reduced.
• Efficient practical utilization of fixed frequency spectrum.

11. What is handover and what are its types?

Hard Handoff : hard handoff is the process in which the cell connection is disconnected from the previous cell before it is made with the new one.

Soft Handoff : It is the process in which a new connection is established first before disconnecting the old one.

12. What is Byte?

Byte is the basic unit of information in computer storage and processing. A byte consists of 8 adjacent binary digits (bits), each of which consists of a 0 or 1. The string of bits making up a byte is processed as a unit by a computer; bytes are the smallest operable units of storage in computer technology.

13. Explain what is PN-junction?

A p-n junction is an interface or a boundary between two semiconductor material types, namely the p-type and the n-type, inside a semiconductor. The p-side or the positive side of the semiconductor has an excess of holes and the n-side or the negative side has an excess of electrons.

14. What is reverse saturation current?

The saturation current (or scale current), more accurately the reverse saturation current, is that part of the reverse current in a semiconductor diode caused by diffusion of minority carriers from the neutral regions to the depletion region. This current is almost independent of the reverse voltage.

15. Why is Germanium(Ge) more temperature-dependent than Silicon(Si)?

Germanium is more temperature sensitive than silicon because it has a smaller band gap. Even at moderate temperature, a substantial number of electrons in germanium are produce from thermal generation. For example at about 120 C, the concentration of electrons and holes from thermal generation is > 1E15.

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