OOPs Concepts in Python


In object-oriented programming, the term “oops” stands for “object-oriented programming and design.” OOPS concepts are essential to understand the design of a program. These concepts include:

  1. Class: A class defines the characteristics and behavior of a group of objects. It specifies the data that the objects will contain (attributes or instance variables) and the operations that the objects will be able to perform (methods or functions).
  2. Object: An object is an instance of a class. It has its own state (data) and behavior (methods).
  3. Method: A method is a function that is defined inside a class and is used to perform a specific action or task. Methods are called on an object, and they can access and modify the data stored in the object.
  4. Encapsulation: Encapsulation refers to the idea of bundling data and methods that operate on that data within one unit, or object. For example, in Python, you might have a “Person” class that contains data attributes such as name and age, as well as methods for setting and getting those attributes.
  5. Inheritance: Inheritance allows a class to inherit characteristics from a parent class. This can save time and improve code reuse. For example, you might have a “Student” class that inherits from a “Person” class, which means it will have all the attributes and methods of the “Person” class, as well as any additional attributes and methods defined in the “Student” class.
  6. Polymorphism: Polymorphism allows you to use the same method name to perform different actions, depending on the context. For example, you might have a “Shape” class with a method called “area,” which calculates the area of a shape. Depending on the specific shape, the “area” method might need to use a different formula to calculate the area.
  7. Abstraction: Abstraction refers to the idea of exposing only the necessary information to the user, while hiding the implementation details. For example, you might have a “Database” class with a method called “query,” which performs a database query. The user of the “Database” class does not need to know how the query is implemented, only that it returns the desired data.

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